Since the invention of the transistor in 1947 by Bardeen and Brattain and William B. Shockley at the Bell Laboratories, followed by the invention of the integrated circuit independently by Jack Kilby at Texas Instruments in 1958 and by Jean Hoerni and Robert Noyce at Fairchild Semiconductor Corporation in 1959, the semiconductor industry has undergone an astonishing expansion. Today, after more than 60 years later, semiconductors are critical components in our daily life. Semiconductor-based integrated circuits can be found in almost every technology including mobile phones, laptops, TVs, medical devices, sensors, solar cells, all-optical-networks, kitchen appliances, vehicles, aviation, and much more.
Conductivity is the parameter that makes semiconductor such special materials. The conductivity of naturally occurring semiconductor elements, such as Silicon or Germanium, can be changed by altering the materials with small amounts of doping. Besides, unlike conductors and insulators, the conductivity of semiconductors can vary with environmental parameters such as temperature, light or electric current. This has made semiconductors find an extensive range of applications in electronics.